South Pacific: Setting Out
Hanalei Bay, on the Hawaiian island of Kauai, served as the filming location, with Emil Kosa Jr.'s matte paintings providing distant views of the fantastic island Bali Ha'i. A second unit filmed aerial views of Fijian islands while some sources claim footage of Tioman Island, off Malaysia's south east coast, were also featured, though this seems unlikely given the logistics involved. Location filming provided sweeping shots of tropical island scenes, as well as a new sequence not in the stage version, in which Billis, having parachuted from a damaged plane, has a boat dropped on him, then comes under a series of attacks, following his fatalistic "Oh, it's going to be one of those days, huh?"
South Pacific: Setting Out
Hayward attempted to buy the rights from Michener outright, offering $500; Michener declined. Although playwright Lynn Riggs had received 1.5% of the box office grosses for the right to adapt Green Grow the Lilacs into Oklahoma!, Michener never regretted accepting one percent of the gross receipts from South Pacific. As Rodgers and Hammerstein began their work on the adaptation, Michener worked mostly with the lyricist, but Rodgers was concerned about the implications of the setting, fearing that he would have to include ukuleles and guitars, which he disliked. Michener assured him that the only instrument he had ever heard the natives play was an emptied barrel of gasoline, drummed upon with clubs.
Part of the reason why South Pacific is considered a classic is its confrontation of racism. According to professor Philip Beidler, "Rodgers and Hammerstein's attempt to use the Broadway theater to make a courageous statement against racial bigotry in general and institutional racism in the postwar United States in particular" forms part of South Pacific's legend. Although Tales of the South Pacific treats the question of racism, it does not give it the central place that it takes in the musical. Andrea Most, writing on the "politics of race" in South Pacific, suggests that in the late 1940s, American liberals, such as Rodgers and Hammerstein, turned to the fight for racial equality as a practical means of advancing their progressive views without risking being deemed communists. Trevor Nunn, director of the 2001 West End production, notes the importance of the fact that Nellie, a southerner, ends the play about to be the mother in an interracial family: "It's being performed in America in 1949. That's the resonance."
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I landed on Buka, which is the northernmost island of Bougainville. Buka Airport and Buka Town are located at the southern end of the island, right beside the Buka Strait. The strait separates Buka Island from Bougainville Island.
Another way to help is to sail with a cruise line that supports a cause close to your heart. Over in Fiji, Captain Cook Cruises has partnered with The Ocean Ambassadors to launch the Fast Track Fiji program, which sees industry stakeholders and leaders join forces to reduce plastic waste in the ocean, setting up recycling systems in remote areas of the country. The cruise line has reserved space on Reef Endeavour to carry plastic from the outer islands to the mainland.
Marine heat waves (MHW) and cool spells (MCS) can both positively and negatively impact marine ecosystems with potentially large societal and economic impacts. Here, I examine the global teleconnections of MHW/MCS in the southern hemisphere and Tasman Sea. When MHW/MCS are defined with respect to a linear warming trend, there is little evidence that MHW in the Tasman Sea are changing in either frequency or intensity but may be lasting longer. MCS may be becoming weaker and less frequent. I show that MHW/MCS in the Tasman Sea co-occur with corresponding events in the Atlantic, Indian, and eastern-Pacific Oceans, and these southern hemisphere events are likely driven by stalling of a global wavenumber-4 (W4) atmospheric wave, leading to anomalously weak north-easterly winds during MHW or strong south-westerly winds during MCS. Thus, the key to predicting MHW/MCS is in understanding what causes the atmospheric W4 wave to stall.
In the southern hemisphere, there have been a variety of proposed mechanisms for MHW. Behrens et al.12 suggested that heat content fluctuations in the Tasman Sea are predominately controlled by variations in the meridional heat transport from the subtropics via the East Australian Current, impacted by wind stress curl anomalies north of the region. Li et al.13 similarly suggested about half of historical Tasman Sea MHW were due to increased poleward transport within the East Australian Current, but that the variability is driven by westward-propagating sea surface height anomalies from the interior South Pacific. There are also questions about how deep MHW penetrate, whether they are simply due to a lack of wind stress leading to surface-intensified warming4, or whether they can show deep expression with maximum warming below the surface as seen off Western Australia14.
In this article, global reanalyses of sea surface temperature, sea-level atmospheric pressure, air-sea heat flux, and wind stress are used to investigate whether MHW/MCS in the southern hemisphere are becoming more frequent or more intense, and their relationship to global forcing.
The average of SSTA at the peak of all 22 warm events (Fig. 4) has a maximum value in the Tasman Sea, as would be expected, where mean SSTA >1.0, but in addition, there are regions in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans where mean SSTA exceeds 0.5, and a lessor region in the Atlantic Ocean where mean SSTA exceeds 0.25. The average atmospheric pressure anomaly (PA) for all 22 warm events shows a clear W4 structure with three strong highs (mean PA>5 hPa, labelled A to C), and a 4th, weaker high south of Africa (D). Each pressure high is centred south-east of a respective high in SSTA.
Forty-five days prior to the peak in canonical MHW, atmospheric pressure anomaly shows the three highs (PA>3 hPa) south of Africa (A), Australia (B), and in the Atlantic Ocean (D), with a weaker high (>2 hPa) west of South America (C). Over the next 45 d, the high south of Africa (A) propagates eastwards while the Australian high (B) moves eastwards more slowly, so that an intense low develops between them. By 15 d prior to the peak, the Australian high sits over and to the east of New Zealand, and remains stationary until the peak, then it dissipates.
During the canonical MHW, this slowdown in propagation sets up anomalous high pressure east of New Zealand which drives northerly/north-easterly- winds over the Tasman Sea that are weaker than usual, setting up a period of increased heat flux into the ocean. This canonical description broadly fits observations from the Tasman Sea of anomalously low air pressure4 and southwards directed ocean currents12 during MHW, although one would expect the relative roles of increased air-sea flux and advection to vary over the course of each MHW.
The canonical MCS is driven similarly, but the W4 atmospheric pressure events stall one-half wavelength zonally out of phase to the MHW event, setting up an anomalous low atmospheric pressure east of New Zealand driving northward advection of cooler surface water. In the canonical MCS, there is also anomalously stronger wind stress, adding a vertical mixing component to the cooling.
W4 structure of the SST variability is not confined to MHW/MCS, for example, Senapati et al.15 report a stationary W4 pattern in SST set up in summer over the southern hemisphere, suggesting that it is set up by coupling between the atmosphere and ocean. Fauchereau, et al.27 similarly found SST co-varied in the southern Atlantic and Indian oceans in a W4 spatial structure. Thus, this work suggests that the canonical MHW/MCS are manifestations of an austral W4 zonally propagating atmospheric wave that in some years stalls out and intensifies.
After setting up various intelligence organizations to meet various needs, Willoughby replaced one of these organizations with the American-led Allied Translator and Interpreter Section (ATIS) in September. Initially based in Melbourne but later moved to Indooroopilly Racetrack in Brisbane, Australia, ATIS held great importance in the Pacific