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Aaron Allen
Aaron Allen

Fighting Through [WORK]

Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. David L. Goldfein, right, talks with an Airman after basic military training graduation May 7, 2020, at Joint San Antonio-Lackland, Texas. Goldfein met with Air Education and Training Command leaders to see firsthand how basic military training is fighting through COVID-19 with health protection measures in place and adapting operations to current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance. (U.S. Air Force photo by Sarayuth Pinthong)

Fighting Through

Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. David L. Goldfein, center, visits Reid Clinic May 7, 2020, at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas. Goldfein met with Air Education and Training Command leaders to see firsthand how basic military training is fighting through COVID-19 with health protection measures in place and adapting operations to current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance. (U.S. Air Force photo by Sarayuth Pinthong)

The Bengals played through protection issues during last year's Super Bowl run. This offseason, it was a major focus, adding Collins, Karras and Cappa. But heading to Buffalo, the line is again an issue Burrow & Co. will have to battle through if they're to continue a postseason march.

In decades past, before we as a culture became more responsible about keeping our dogs safe at home, a fenced yard was a relatively rare phenomenon. The family dog was often allowed to roam the neighborhood and interact freely with other neighborhood dogs and humans. In general, they were better socialized and fence aggression was uncommon. Of course, dogs also routinely got hit by cars, shot, poisoned, and just plain disappeared. I am certainly not advocating going back to the days of free-roaming dogs just to avoid fence-fighting! But we do need to look for better ways to keep dogs contained in order to avoid concomitant unwanted behaviors.

For more information on the CAT procedure, see the recently released book by CAT creator Kellie Snider, Turning Fierce Dogs Friendly: Using Constructional Aggression Treatment to Rehabilitate Aggressive and Reactive Dogs (available through Whole Dog Journal). Please note that successful implementation of the CAT procedure usually requires the guidance of an experienced canine behavior CAT professional.

Making the decision to take steps toward living a life without opioids is a big one; congratulations on making this huge step! While you are looking forward to living a healthy life, rebuilding relationships and setting new goals, there are still some hurdles you will need to overcome. One of which is one of the very first steps to becoming sober: fighting through opioid withdrawals. While this is an uncomfortable process, it is important to remember that it is only temporary and there are many things you can do to help make it go smoother.

Fighting through opioid withdrawals is nearly impossible when done cold turkey. Cravings are extremely high, and the body experiences the worst of all the withdrawal symptoms. The temptation to give in to cravings may prove to be too much for you to bear, no matter how badly you want to truly quit using opioids.

Instead of quitting cold turkey, fighting through opioid withdrawals is much easier with the help of medical detox and medicated-assisted treatment. Think of it this way: diabetics need their insulin. People with high blood pressure need their medication. Therefore, people who are suffering from severe opioid addiction need medicated-assisted treatment.

Chances are, you either sleep too much or you suffer from insomnia. You might sleep at odd times during the day or night, or you stay up extremely late. Either way, it is very important for you to start getting on a better sleep schedule. Fighting through opioid withdrawals is tough, so getting enough sleep to allow your body to rest and recharge is important through this process.

Animals invest considerable energy into winning contests and suffer injuries in escalated fights (Briffa and Sneddon, 2007; Briffa, 2013). This raises questions regarding the adaptive benefits of being dominant. Evidence from numerous studies on mammals shows a positive relationship between dominance rank and reproductive success (Ellis, 1995). Similarly, in the female mate choice of fish (Paull et al., 2010) and crustaceans (Atema and Steinbach, 2007), dominant males profit by being preferred over subordinates. In most crustaceans, however, females are receptive for only a short period of the year (Jormalainen, 1998) but male contests take place throughout the year. This highlights the importance of other non-reproductive resources such as food and shelter as drivers for the formation of dominance hierarchies (Stocker and Huber, 2001; Herberholz et al., 2007; Fero and Moore, 2008).

The Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus 1758) (hereafter referred to as Nephrops) is a burrowing decapod inhabiting muddy bottoms of continental shelves and slopes of the Mediterranean Sea and European Atlantic Ocean (Farmer, 1975; Sardà, 1995; Bell et al., 2006). Chapman and Rice (1971) were the first to mention fighting behaviour of Nephrops over burrows in the wild; the observed ritualized dyadic fight was then described in the laboratory by Katoh et al. (2008), demonstrating that lasting dyadic dominance relationships are based on the assessment of chemical signals released with urine. The locomotor activity of Nephrops outside the burrows is under the control of the circadian clock and a light-driven burrow emergence behavioural rhythm has been characterized in the laboratory in the presence of artificial burrows (Aguzzi and Sardà, 2008; Katoh et al., 2013; Sbragaglia et al., 2013a). Nephrops burrow emergence is nocturnal in shallow water, while becoming diurnal in deep water. Such switching is driven by light intensity as demonstrated by Chiesa et al. (2010). This behavioural shift is probably coupled to the daily vertical migration of predators and prey (Aguzzi et al., 2015) and to the fact that the burrow represents a perfect strategy to escape predators as suggested by stomach contents data of many predators (Serrano et al., 2003).

Here, we characterized the behavioural changes occurring during the formation and maintenance of a dominance hierarchy in a group of four size-matched Nephrops. We provided four burrows to allow each lobster to display its specific daily burrowing behavioural rhythm. The rationale of this experimental design comes from the classic field observations by Chapman and Rice (1971) and new laboratory findings by Aguzzi et al. (2011) demonstrating a strong burrow-centred territoriality in the Norway lobster; fighting behaviour over burrows occurred even if these were not a limited resource (Aguzzi et al., 2011). Social interactions may influence circadian activity and lead to temporal niche partitioning (Castillo-Ruiz et al., 2012). So, in order to study the effect of a dominance hierarchy on the daily burrowing activity rhythm of Nephrops each individual needed access to a burrow.

There could be important benefits conveyed by a high rank status for Nephrops in shelter competition as well as in the dynamics of hierarchy emergence. Shelter is an important resource in decapod crustaceans. Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus and O. virilis) fights are longer and more intense in the presence of shelters than fights over food resources (Bergman and Moore, 2003). Shelter use also correlates with dominance hierarchy in O. rusticus (Fero et al., 2007). Seeking shelter in burrows during the daytime could be an effective strategy for Nephrops to avoid diurnal predation at continental margin depths where sunlight is reduced but still a major driver of benthopelagic coupling (Aguzzi et al., 2015). Although megabenthic crustaceans are the major prey of demersal predatory fish, Nephrops was found very rarely in the stomachs of these predators (Serrano et al., 2003). The main predator of Nephrops throughout much of its range is the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Chapman, 1980; Johnson et al., 2013). Cod are active at day, dusk and dawn and show an activity pattern that allows them to consume both diurnal and nocturnal prey (Righton et al., 2001; Reubens et al., 2014). However, even cod consumption represents a relatively low mortality rate in Nephrops compared with the effects of commercial fishing (Johnson et al., 2013). This is probably due to the protection that burrows provide against most predators, so higher dominance ranks could confer benefits to lobsters by allowing an increased use of burrows. It must be considered that we provided one burrow per animal and lobsters preferentially occupied only one burrow independently of their ranks (see Fig. S4). Evictions without a consequent occupation of evicted lobsters' burrows may be related to a strategy of dominant lobsters to reduce aggressive interactions with conspecifics by forcing subordinates to emigrate (Hemelrijk, 2000; Fero and Moore, 2008) or by reducing competition for females. For example, in the American lobster (Homarus americanus) dominant males occupy shelters large enough to allow cohabitation with a female but regularly patrol the nearby shelters to evict other resident lobsters (Atema and Steinbach, 2007).

"Because they're maybe our most honest acknowledgement of a constant battle we are all fighting, in which we are allies," she added. "Relying on each other not to fall back and stop advancing because we are up against a seriously massive force of opposition that has, for centuries, tried to rein us in. If one of us steps back, we all step back."

The student loan relief application opened on October 17, 2022, and will be available through June 30, 2023. Apply for up to $20,000 in federal student loan debt for Pell Grant recipients and up to $10,000 for other student loan debt relief.

NAACP and Brookings have partnered on The Black Progress Index, a new analysis of the places where Black people are thriving most, as measured through their life expectancy. In the spirit of W.E.B. Du Bois, we're working to provide insight into the local civic actions that can improve life expectancy outcomes.


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